Tag Archives: Church Fathers

Optional Memorial of St. Cyril of Alexandria, bishop and doctor

St. Cyril I, 24th Patriarch of AlexandriaSupernaturally, we are all one. We are made one body in Christ, because we are nourished by one flesh. As Christ is indivisible, we are all one in him.

St. Cyril of Alexandria

St. Cyril is one of the most important and outspoken Church Fathers. It was at the Council of Ephesus (mid-400s), in which he was presiding in the name of the Pope at the time, that it was defined that Mary is truly Theotokos, the Mother of God. This secondary infallible declaration is a result of the primary infallible declaration of the Council, which was the proclamation that Jesus is both Truly God and Truly Man.

In addition to this, St. Cyril was an ardent defender of the Real Presence and the authority of the Bishop of Rome as the visible head of the Church on Earth.


Read the Bible at Mass

First Reading: Gn 18:16-33

Abraham and the men who had visited him by the Terebinth of Mamre set out from there and looked down toward Sodom; Abraham was walking with them, to see them on their way.

The LORD reflected:

“Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, now that he is to become a great and populous nation, and all the nations of the earth are to find blessing in him? Indeed, I have singled him out that he may direct his children and his household after him to keep the way of the LORD by doing what is right and just, so that the LORD may carry into effect for Abraham the promises he made about him.”

Then the LORD said:

“The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great, and their sin so grave, that I must go down and see whether or not their actions fully correspond to the cry against them that comes to me. I mean to find out.”

While the two men walked on farther toward Sodom, the LORD remained standing before Abraham. Then Abraham drew nearer to him and said:

“Will you sweep away the innocent with the guilty? Suppose there were fifty innocent people in the city; would you wipe out the place, rather than spare it for the sake of the fifty innocent people within it? Far be it from you to do such a thing, to make the innocent die with the guilty, so that the innocent and the guilty would be treated alike! Should not the judge of all the world act with justice?”

The LORD replied, “If I find fifty innocent people in the city of Sodom, I will spare the whole place for their sake.”

Abraham spoke up again:

“See how I am presuming to speak to my Lord, though I am but dust and ashes! What if there are five less than fifty innocent people? Will you destroy the whole city because of those five?”

He answered, “I will not destroy it if I find forty-five there.”

But Abraham persisted, saying, “What if only forty are found there?”

He replied, “I will forbear doing it for the sake of forty.”

Then Abraham said, “Let not my Lord grow impatient if I go on. What if only thirty are found there?”

He replied, “I will forbear doing it if I can find but thirty there.”

Still Abraham went on, “Since I have thus dared to speak to my Lord, what if there are no more than twenty?”

He answered, “I will not destroy it for the sake of the twenty.”

But he still persisted:

“Please, let not my Lord grow angry if I speak up this last time. What if there are at least ten there?”

He replied, “For the sake of those ten, I will not destroy it.”

The LORD departed as soon as he had finished speaking with Abraham,
and Abraham returned home.

Responsorial Psalm: 103:1b-2, 3-4, 8-9, 10-11

R. (8a) The Lord is kind and merciful.

Bless the LORD, O my soul;
and all my being, bless his holy name.
Bless the LORD, O my soul,
and forget not all his benefits. 

R. The Lord is kind and merciful.

He pardons all your iniquities,
he heals all your ills.
He redeems your life from destruction,
he crowns you with kindness and compassion.

R. The Lord is kind and merciful.

Merciful and gracious is the LORD,
slow to anger and abounding in kindness.
He will not always chide,
nor does he keep his wrath forever.

R. The Lord is kind and merciful.

Not according to our sins does he deal with us,
nor does he requite us according to our crimes.
For as the heavens are high above the earth,
so surpassing is his kindness toward those who fear him. 

R. The Lord is kind and merciful.

Gospel Reading: Mt 8:18-22

When Jesus saw a crowd around him, he gave orders to cross to the other shore. A scribe approached and said to him, “Teacher, I will follow you wherever you go.” Jesus answered him, “Foxes have dens and birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to rest his head.” Another of his disciples said to him, “Lord, let me go first and bury my father.” But Jesus answered him, “Follow me, and let the dead bury their dead.”


St. Cyril of Alexandria

St. Cyril is one of the great Greek fathers of the Church. He was chosen by divine Providence to be the shield and champion of the Church against Nestorius, who denied the unity of person in Christ. If this heresy had succeeded, Mary would not be called the Mother of God.

Excepting Sts. Athanasius and Augustine, his equal as a defender of orthodoxy, can hardly be found in the Church’s history. His greatest achievement was the successful direction of the ecumenical council at Ephesus (431), of which he was the soul (Pope Celestine had appointed him papal legate). In this council two important dogmas were defined – that there is but one person in Christ, and that Mary (in the literal sense of the word) can be called the Mother of God (Theotokos). His successful defense of the latter doctrine is his greatest title to honor.

His writings show such depth and clarity that the Greeks called him the “seal of the fathers.” He died in 444 A.D., after having been bishop for thirty-two years. In Rome, the basilica of St. Mary Major stands as a most venerable monument to the honor paid Mary at the Council of Ephesus. On the arch leading into the sanctuary important incidents in the lives of Jesus and Mary are depicted in mosaic.

Excerpted from The Church’s Year of Grace, Pius Parsch

In 1881, he was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII, and in 1944, on the fifteenth centenary of Cyril’s death, Pope Pius XII issued his encyclical Orientalis Ecclesiae, commemorating Cyril’s place in the history of the Church.

Excerpted from The One Year Book of Saints by Rev. Clifford Stevens

Patron: Alexandria; Egypt.

Symbols: Shown holding a pen; with the Blessed Virgin Mary holding the Child Jesus.

Things to Do:

  • Read Pope Pius XII encyclical, Orientalis Ecclesiae (On St. Cyril, Patriarch Of Alexandria).
  • Read some excerpts from the writings of St. Cyril at the Crossroads Initiative.
  • St. Cyril lived in the fifth century and combated the heresy of Nestorius, who denied the union between the humanity and divinity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and thus, the divine motherhood of the Blessed Virgin Mary. (See Catechism of the Catholic Church466) Read what the Catholic Encyclopedia says about Nestorius and Nestorianism.

via Catholic Culture | Liturgical Year

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    Christ gave the Sign of the Cross on Ascension Thursday

    As is often the case, Taylor Marshall (Canterbury Tales) posts a tasty nugget of Christian tradition:

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    Today at the Ascension Mass, our priest recounted how Tradition holds that Christ made the sign of the cross over Mary and the Apostles before he ascended into Heaven. “He lifted up His hands and blessed them” is interpreted as Christ raising his hands over the Apostles and then making the sign of the cross over them. This belief is affirmed by the Church Fathers (e.g. Saint Jerome). 

    The sign of the cross is of Apostolic origin and it remains in the liturgy and life of the Holy Church of Christ. Father Arthur Tonne provides us with examples:

    1. The sign of the cross in some form or other is made about 54 times during Holy Mass.
    2. It is used frequently in the Divine Office or daily prayer of the priest.
    3. It is used in all blessings bestowed by bishop and priest.
    4. It is used in all the sacraments: 14 times in Baptism; 17 times in Extreme Unction. Yes, even in the semi-darkness of the confessional the priest makes the sign of the cross over you.
    5. It is used in everything blessed for the service of God—altars, linens, holy water, etc.

    via Canterbury Tales by Taylor Marshall: Christ gave the Sign of the Cross on Ascension Thursday 

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    Christ gave the Sign of the Cross on Ascension Thursday

    As is often the case, Taylor Marshall (Canterbury Tales) posts a tasty nugget of Christian tradition:

    Today at the Ascension Mass, our priest recounted how Tradition holds that Christ made the sign of the cross over Mary and the Apostles before he ascended into Heaven. “He lifted up His hands and blessed them” is interpreted as Christ raising his hands over the Apostles and then making the sign of the cross over them. This belief is affirmed by the Church Fathers (e.g. Saint Jerome). 

    The sign of the cross is of Apostolic origin and it remains in the liturgy and life of the Holy Church of Christ. Father Arthur Tonne provides us with examples:

    1. The sign of the cross in some form or other is made about 54 times during Holy Mass.
    2. It is used frequently in the Divine Office or daily prayer of the priest.
    3. It is used in all blessings bestowed by bishop and priest.
    4. It is used in all the sacraments: 14 times in Baptism; 17 times in Extreme Unction. Yes, even in the semi-darkness of the confessional the priest makes the sign of the cross over you.
    5. It is used in everything blessed for the service of God—altars, linens, holy water, etc.

    via Canterbury Tales by Taylor Marshall: Christ gave the Sign of the Cross on Ascension Thursday 

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    Reflections from the Saints: Jerome on Sacred Scripture

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    Image via Wikipedia

    There is no doubt that through the reading of the Sacred Scriptures the soul is set aflame in God and becomes purified from all vices.

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    Reflections from the Saints: Jerome on Sacred Scripture

    Saint Jerome.Image via Wikipedia

    There is no doubt that through the reading of the Sacred Scriptures the soul is set aflame in God and becomes purified from all vices.

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    List of teachings Protestants cannot agree upon due to Sola Scriptura

    The following is a ‘open’ list of teachings (subject to further expansion) which Protestants cannot agree upon due to the doctrinal relativism caused by Sola Scriptura. Though many Protestants today would “solve” this problem by tossing a lot of these into the “non-essential” category, I believe the doctrinal issues I’ve mentioned have been clearly seen to cause division among Protestants:

    1. Once Saved Always Saved
    2. Universal versus Limited Atonement
    3. Infant Baptism
    4. Form of Baptism (e.g. full immersion vs pouring)
    5. Whether Baptism is necessary in ordinary circumstances
    6. Whether the Lord’s Supper is purely symbolic or some sort of ‘real’ presence
    7. Divorce and Remarriage
    8. Whether icons/pictures of Christ are allowed
    9. Which doctrines are perspicuous/essential
    10. Whether Charismatic Gifts of the Spirit have ceased
    11. Whether instruments are allowed in church
    12. Female ordination
    13. The “biblical” form of church government
    14. Sunday versus any day worship / Whether the Sabbath is still in force in some sense.
    15. House churches versus dedicated congregational churches
    16. Dispensationalism
    17. Rapture/Tribulation
    18. Imputed Active Obedience
    19. Whether traditional categories like Person/Nature are true/valid
    20. Mary being “Mother of God”
    21. Mary’s Perpetual Virginity
    22. Whether Inspiration of Scripture is plenary or limited to faith and morals
    23. Whether one can/should pray to the Holy Spirit
    24. Whether Sola Scriptura applied during the time of Christ and the Apostles
    25. How to define/understand Sola Scriptura, especially as it relates to Creeds and Councils
    26. Should Christians engage in politics, civil service, etc. 
    27. Whether Christians should pray the Our Father
    28. Whether prayer should be only spontaneous
    29. Whether keeping the Commandments is necessary for salvation
    30. Whether illness, suffering, poverty, etc, are due to sin or lack of faith
    31. Whether Free Will and Double Predestination are true or not

    Feel free to mention some other examples in the comment box!

    As a Catholic, it is easy for me to treat this list as a “checklist” of sorts. All I have to do is go down each point and reference the matter in the Catechism. The Catechism is chock full of Bible citations, references to the Church Fathers and council documents, etc. wherein I can read the reasons behind why the Church teaches what it does on these matters.

    That said, I do not post this here to belittle but instead to foster conversation and debate. Therefore, I am proposing that over the course of the next several weeks interested parties should speak touch on these matters in a civil and charitable fashion. Best of all, those who decide to meet in person can have a conversation on a set topic and thus prepare to speak on and teach on their theological opinions and understanding on the item of the week.

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    List of teachings Protestants cannot agree upon due to Sola Scriptura

    The following is a ‘open’ list of teachings (subject to further expansion) which Protestants cannot agree upon due to the doctrinal relativism caused by Sola Scriptura. Though many Protestants today would “solve” this problem by tossing a lot of these into the “non-essential” category, I believe the doctrinal issues I’ve mentioned have been clearly seen to cause division among Protestants:

    1. Once Saved Always Saved
    2. Universal versus Limited Atonement
    3. Infant Baptism
    4. Form of Baptism (e.g. full immersion vs pouring)
    5. Whether Baptism is necessary in ordinary circumstances
    6. Whether the Lord’s Supper is purely symbolic or some sort of ‘real’ presence
    7. Divorce and Remarriage
    8. Whether icons/pictures of Christ are allowed
    9. Which doctrines are perspicuous/essential
    10. Whether Charismatic Gifts of the Spirit have ceased
    11. Whether instruments are allowed in church
    12. Female ordination
    13. The “biblical” form of church government
    14. Sunday versus any day worship / Whether the Sabbath is still in force in some sense.
    15. House churches versus dedicated congregational churches
    16. Dispensationalism
    17. Rapture/Tribulation
    18. Imputed Active Obedience
    19. Whether traditional categories like Person/Nature are true/valid
    20. Mary being “Mother of God”
    21. Mary’s Perpetual Virginity
    22. Whether Inspiration of Scripture is plenary or limited to faith and morals
    23. Whether one can/should pray to the Holy Spirit
    24. Whether Sola Scriptura applied during the time of Christ and the Apostles
    25. How to define/understand Sola Scriptura, especially as it relates to Creeds and Councils
    26. Should Christians engage in politics, civil service, etc. 
    27. Whether Christians should pray the Our Father
    28. Whether prayer should be only spontaneous
    29. Whether keeping the Commandments is necessary for salvation
    30. Whether illness, suffering, poverty, etc, are due to sin or lack of faith
    31. Whether Free Will and Double Predestination are true or not

    Feel free to mention some other examples in the comment box!

    As a Catholic, it is easy for me to treat this list as a “checklist” of sorts. All I have to do is go down each point and reference the matter in the Catechism. The Catechism is chock full of Bible citations, references to the Church Fathers and council documents, etc. wherein I can read the reasons behind why the Church teaches what it does on these matters.

    That said, I do not post this here to belittle but instead to foster conversation and debate. Therefore, I am proposing that over the course of the next several weeks interested parties should speak touch on these matters in a civil and charitable fashion. Best of all, those who decide to meet in person can have a conversation on a set topic and thus prepare to speak on and teach on their theological opinions and understanding on the item of the week.

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    Memorial of Saint Polycarp, bishop and martyr

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    Saint Polycarp. Image via Wikipedia.

    “Stand fast, therefore, in this conduct and follow the example of the Lord, ‘firm and unchangeable in faith, lovers of the brotherhood, loving each other, united in truth,’ helping each other with the mildness of the Lord, despising no man.”

    – St. Polycarp


    Daily Scripture Readings

    First Reading Sir 4:11-19
    Wisdom breathes life into her children
    and admonishes those who seek her.

    He who loves her loves life;
    those who seek her will be embraced by the Lord.

    He who holds her fast inherits glory;
    wherever he dwells, the LORD bestows blessings.

    Those who serve her serve the Holy One;
    those who love her the LORD loves.

    He who obeys her judges nations;
    he who hearkens to her dwells in her inmost chambers.

    If one trusts her, he will possess her;
    his descendants too will inherit her.

    She walks with him as a stranger
    and at first she puts him to the test;

    Fear and dread she brings upon him
    and tries him with her discipline
    until she try him by her laws and trust his soul.

    Then she comes back to bring him happiness
    and reveal her secrets to them
    and she will heap upon him
    treasures of knowledge and an understanding of justice.

    But if he fails her, she will abandon him
    and deliver him into the hands of despoilers.

    Responsorial Psalm Ps 119:165, 168, 171, 172, 174, 175
    R. (165a) O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    Those who love your law have great peace,
    and for them there is no stumbling block.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    I keep your precepts and your decrees,
    for all my ways are before you.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    My lips pour forth your praise,
    because you teach me your statutes.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    May my tongue sing of your promise,
    for all your commands are just.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    I long for your salvation, O LORD,
    and your law is my delight.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    Let my soul live to praise you,
    and may your ordinances help me.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    Gospel Mk 9:38-40

    John said to Jesus, “Teacher, we saw someone driving out demons in your name, and we tried to prevent him because he does not follow us.” Jesus replied, “Do not prevent him. There is no one who performs a mighty deed in my name who can at the same time speak ill of me. For whoever is not against us is for us.”


    St. Polycarp of Smyrna

    Polycarp had known those who had known Jesus, and was a disciple of St. John the Apostle, who had converted him around the year 80 AD. He taught, says his own pupil Irenaeus of Lyons, the things that he learned from the Apostles, which the Church hands down, which are true. Irenaeus, who as a young boy knew Polycarp, praised his gravity, holiness, and majesty of countenance. He had lived near Jerusalem and was proud of his early associations with the Apostles.

    Polycarp became bishop of Smyrna and held the see for about 70 years. He was a staunch defender of orthodoxy and an energetic opponent of heresy, especially Marcionism and Valentinianism (the most influential of the Gnostic sects). Toward the end of his life he visited Pope St. Anicetus in Rome and, when they could not agree on a date for Easter, decided each would observe his own date. To testify his respect and ensure that the bonds of charity were unbroken, Anicetus invited Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in the papal chapel on this occasion. Polycarp suffered martyrdom with 12 others of his flock around the year 156.

    Excerpted from St. Polycarp, Bishop and Martyr by Fr. Paul Haffner (Inside the Vatican, February 2004)

    Among the select few from apostolic times about whom we have some historical information is Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna and one of the most glorious martyrs of Christian antiquity. His life and death are attested by the authentic “Acts” of his martyrdom (no similar account is older), as well as by other contemporary writings. It moves us deeply when, for example, we find in St. Irenaeus, a disciple of Polycarp, the passage in which he reminisces:

    “The memory of that time when as a youth I was with Polycarp in Asia Minor is as fresh in my mind as the present. Even now I could point to the place where he sat and taught, and describe his coming and going, his every action, his outward appearance, and his manner of discourse to the people. It seems as though I still heard him tell of his association with the apostle John and with others who saw the Lord, and as though he were still relating to me their words and what he heard from them about the Lord and His miracles. . . .”

    On the day of his death (February 23) the Martyrology recounts with deep reverence:

    “At Smyrna, the death of St. Polycarp. He was a disciple of the holy apostle John, who consecrated him bishop of that city; and there he acted as the primate of all Asia Minor. Later, under Marcus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, he was brought before the tribunal of the proconsul; and when all the people in the amphitheater cried out against him, he was handed over to be burned to death. But since the fire caused him no harm, he was put to death by the sword. Thus he gained the crown of martyrdom. With him, twelve other Christians, who came from Philadelphia, met death by martyrdom in the same city.”

    Excerpted from The Church’s Year of Grace, Pius Parsch.

    Patron: Against ear ache, dysentery.

    Things to Do:

    via Catholic Culture : Liturgical Year.

    Memorial of Saint Polycarp, bishop and martyr

    Saint Polycarp

    “Stand fast, therefore, in this conduct and follow the example of the Lord, ‘firm and unchangeable in faith, lovers of the brotherhood, loving each other, united in truth,’ helping each other with the mildness of the Lord, despising no man.”

    – St. Polycarp


    Daily Scripture Readings

    First Reading Sir 4:11-19
    Wisdom breathes life into her children
    and admonishes those who seek her.

    He who loves her loves life;
    those who seek her will be embraced by the Lord.

    He who holds her fast inherits glory;
    wherever he dwells, the LORD bestows blessings.

    Those who serve her serve the Holy One;
    those who love her the LORD loves.

    He who obeys her judges nations;
    he who hearkens to her dwells in her inmost chambers.

    If one trusts her, he will possess her;
    his descendants too will inherit her.

    She walks with him as a stranger
    and at first she puts him to the test;

    Fear and dread she brings upon him
    and tries him with her discipline
    until she try him by her laws and trust his soul.

    Then she comes back to bring him happiness
    and reveal her secrets to them
    and she will heap upon him
    treasures of knowledge and an understanding of justice.

    But if he fails her, she will abandon him
    and deliver him into the hands of despoilers.

    Responsorial Psalm Ps 119:165, 168, 171, 172, 174, 175
    R. (165a) O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    Those who love your law have great peace,
    and for them there is no stumbling block.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    I keep your precepts and your decrees,
    for all my ways are before you.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    My lips pour forth your praise,
    because you teach me your statutes.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    May my tongue sing of your promise,
    for all your commands are just.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    I long for your salvation, O LORD,
    and your law is my delight.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    Let my soul live to praise you,
    and may your ordinances help me.

    R. O Lord, great peace have they who love your law.

    Gospel Mk 9:38-40

    John said to Jesus, “Teacher, we saw someone driving out demons in your name, and we tried to prevent him because he does not follow us.” Jesus replied, “Do not prevent him. There is no one who performs a mighty deed in my name who can at the same time speak ill of me. For whoever is not against us is for us.”


    St. Polycarp of Smyrna

    Polycarp had known those who had known Jesus, and was a disciple of St. John the Apostle, who had converted him around the year 80 AD. He taught, says his own pupil Irenaeus of Lyons, the things that he learned from the Apostles, which the Church hands down, which are true. Irenaeus, who as a young boy knew Polycarp, praised his gravity, holiness, and majesty of countenance. He had lived near Jerusalem and was proud of his early associations with the Apostles.

    Polycarp became bishop of Smyrna and held the see for about 70 years. He was a staunch defender of orthodoxy and an energetic opponent of heresy, especially Marcionism and Valentinianism (the most influential of the Gnostic sects). Toward the end of his life he visited Pope St. Anicetus in Rome and, when they could not agree on a date for Easter, decided each would observe his own date. To testify his respect and ensure that the bonds of charity were unbroken, Anicetus invited Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in the papal chapel on this occasion. Polycarp suffered martyrdom with 12 others of his flock around the year 156.

    Excerpted from St. Polycarp, Bishop and Martyr by Fr. Paul Haffner (Inside the Vatican, February 2004)

    Among the select few from apostolic times about whom we have some historical information is Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna and one of the most glorious martyrs of Christian antiquity. His life and death are attested by the authentic “Acts” of his martyrdom (no similar account is older), as well as by other contemporary writings. It moves us deeply when, for example, we find in St. Irenaeus, a disciple of Polycarp, the passage in which he reminisces:

    “The memory of that time when as a youth I was with Polycarp in Asia Minor is as fresh in my mind as the present. Even now I could point to the place where he sat and taught, and describe his coming and going, his every action, his outward appearance, and his manner of discourse to the people. It seems as though I still heard him tell of his association with the apostle John and with others who saw the Lord, and as though he were still relating to me their words and what he heard from them about the Lord and His miracles… .”

    On the day of his death (February 23) the Martyrology recounts with deep reverence:

    “At Smyrna, the death of St. Polycarp. He was a disciple of the holy apostle John, who consecrated him bishop of that city; and there he acted as the primate of all Asia Minor. Later, under Marcus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, he was brought before the tribunal of the proconsul; and when all the people in the amphitheater cried out against him, he was handed over to be burned to death. But since the fire caused him no harm, he was put to death by the sword. Thus he gained the crown of martyrdom. With him, twelve other Christians, who came from Philadelphia, met death by martyrdom in the same city.”

    Excerpted from The Church’s Year of Grace, Pius Parsch.

    Patron: Against ear ache, dysentery.

    Things to Do:

    via Catholic Culture : Liturgical Year.

    St Cyril of Alexandria: Mary is the Mediatrix of All Graces

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    Icon of St. Cyril I, the 24th Patriarch of Alexandria.
    Image via Wikipedia.

    Taylor Marshall is a solid apologist and theologian. I often check his blog and am never disappointed, especially when I find fun facts, insights and quotes like the following from a homily given by St. Cyril of Alexandria, known to many as the “Great Defender of Christ:”

    Hail Mary Theotokos [Mother of God], venerable treasure of the whole world, light unextinguished, crown of virginity, scepter of orthodoxy, indestructible temple, which contains the uncontainable…it is through you that the Holy Trinity is glorified and adored, through you, the precious cross is venerated and adored throughout the whole world, through you that heaven is in gladness, that angels and archangels rejoice, that demons are put to flight, through you that the tempter, the devil is cast down from heaven, through you that the fallen creature is raised up to heaven, through you that all creation, once imprisoned in idolatry, has reached knowledge of the truth, that the faithful obtain baptism and the oil of joy, churches have been founded in the whole world, that peoples are led to conversion.”

    via Mary as Mediatrix in Church Fathers Saint Cyril ~ Canterbury Tales by Taylor Marshall.

    The question that Taylor Marshall asks his Protestant readers concerning this is, “If you heard Saint Cyril, the great defender of Christ, preach this sermon, would you rejoice and say ‘Amen’ or would you walk out?”

    Well, what is your answer?

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